Coronavirus – Recent global pandemic of the 21st century
The 21st century- whose people their lives, matters, and goals are all so advanced and modernized that people in the past had only imagined off. But what is the worth of all this modernization and advancement if we can’t overcome a single piece of virus that has caused terrible chaos and deadliest paranoia all over the world. Today our world has become a real stage of the dystopic versions of the 21st century that almost every science and fiction writer of the past has believed and portrayed. The world where innovation, technology and wealth will be the only powers, where love, kindness, and humanity were rarely seen, but still a time will come when no wealth and no technology will be able to save mankind. All of this is no less than an image of a society, which we are living in. The time has come and the whole world is in the state of war not from an alien invasion or a robotic apocalypse but from a small and single strand of RNA which has killed over thousands of people all across the world and has forced a billion of them to remain isolated in their homes whether it be a person of any gender, caste, religion, position or wealth. All the superpowers and all the innovative and biggest health systems of the world are vulnerable and hopeless to this small virus, trying their best to fight it by taking every desperate or calculated measure.
The basics of Virology- What are Viruses? How they make us sick?
What is coronavirus? Before we proceed onto this we should first understand what a virus is and what makes it so different and dangerous?
Viruses – Viruses are the micro-organisms that are even smaller than thebacteria and can not be seen under simple or light microscopes. They are not only small but are non-cellular as well, which means they are incapable of independent replication and can neither synthesize their energy nor their proteins.
Basic characteristics of viruses: some of the characteristics that are common to every virus are:
- Viruses are single pieces of DNA or RNA that are enveloped in an outer coat of lipoproteins.
- They do not have any ribosomes, nucleus or cell organelles which is why they can not synthesize their proteins.
- Their mode of replication is entirely different from humans or other micro-organisms. They can produce up to billions of progenies at once using the energy from their host’s body.
- All viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that require a living host cell to survive and grow.
The basics of viral pathogenesis
The viral pathogenesis is based on distinct levels,
- The first step is the transmission or entry of the virus into a living cell.
- The second step is the replication of the virus within the host cell.
- After continuous replication, viruses start damaging the infected cell by virus-induced inhibition of macromolecular synthesis.
- After the destruction of the infected cell, it moves to various other cells, organs and even the immunity system making them weak and non-functional.
- The destruction and non-functioning of cells and organs cause the person or the host to become sick and infected.
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About the author
Dr. Mike Kelly- is an expert in the field of infectious diseases and especially viral diseases. He is a practiced microbiologist and virologist who has studied viral infections, their effects on the human body and the effects of anti-viral drugs on viruses and their resistance to them. This guide is a complete package of his extensive lifetime research and experience.
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A summary of Coronaviruses- What are they? Its recent outbreak and mode of transmission? And What are the symptoms, risk factors, precautionary measures, and treatments?
This is a summary of all the questions answered in this book in a detailed and precise manner.
What is corona virus?
Coronaviruses are a category of respiratory viruses that have an animal or mammal reservoir. The most common of these viruses are CoV-SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome) and CoV-MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome). The world has already survived from these viruses in the past pandemics of 2002 and 2012 respectively and is now facing another recent pandemic from the mutated strain of CoV-SARS 2 in the shape of COVID-19.
The characteristics of Coronavirus
The basic characteristics, contents, and composition of coronavirus include
- They are un-segmented, single-stranded pieces of RNA (ribonucleic acid) enveloped within a nucleocapsid.
- Under an electron microscope, they show various spikes in the form of corona (halo or crown).
- The receptor for SARS and MERS virus are ACE-2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2) or CD-26 on the respiratory mucosa.
The epidemiology and mode of transmission
- Like the previous outbreaks of SARS, the COVID-19 outbreak is also originated from China from where it spread rapidly to all over the world.
- The most common season of the outbreak is in winters on a 2 to 3 years cycle.
- It is suspected that some bats, camels and civet cats are the natural reservoir of these viruses.
- Until now a spread to 212 countries has been reported with the confirmed cases of 1,395,136 and confirmed deaths of 81,580.
- The mode of transmission of this virus is through respiratory aerosol, saliva or respiratory discharges from infected persons.
- It can transmit through close physical contacts by handshakes and hugs.
The pathogenesis, clinical findings, and symptoms
The virus enters the body by attaching its spikes with the respiratory mucosa and then enters the cell’s cytoplasm replicating and damaging the respiratory tract epithelium resulting in following symptoms and clinical findings:
- At first, the flu-like symptoms occur with fever, chills, dry cough, body aches, and headaches.
- Later, severe conditions result in dyspnea and hypoxia.
- The damage to epithelial linings of the respiratory tract causes fluid dysregulation resulting in severe edema between the alveoli causing Pneumonia.
- Often leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are also seen.
Risk Factors and comorbid increasing the severity of infection
The people who are at higher risks of getting infected with this virus includes
- Children from newborns to under 18-years of age are at greater risks.
- Old men and women above 40 are also at risk.
- People having diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory conditions, and cancer are more vulnerable.
- Pregnant ladies are also at risk.
All these people are those who are immunocompromised and whose immune systems are weak due to other diseases. Young people have a better survival possibility as their immune systems are strong.
Safety Precautions and treatment options
Until now there is no confirmed treatment available for coronavirus and the vaccines, antibodies and anti-viral medications are under process. But some safety measures are provided by WHO and health care providers to ensure the limited spread of the virus. These safety precautions are:
- Washing hands properly with soaps.
- Using proper masks and gloves to cover your sensitive areas.
- Use of alcohol-based sanitizers or disinfectants frequently.
- Avoid going out in public and limit physical contact as much as possible.
- Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth.
- When sneezing or coughing try to follow the basic ethics of hygiene.
Coronavirus – A physical as well as a psychological stress
The whole COVID-19 outbreak is not only a matter of physical illness but also it is affecting the mental states of almost every person. The lockdowns, curfews, and shutting of markets, business empires and cities are leaving a negative mark on the psychology of the brain. People quarantined in their homes are developing cabin fever, nervousness,and other depression issues. Even a healthy person gets psychologically disturbed after listening and thinking about the world condition from news and social media.
Final say on the product
As there are hundreds of fake and unauthorized news going viral regarding this pandemic which is driving every one of us crazy. So instead of getting yourself stuck with false rumors and remedies trust a guide from an expert. If you are keen to know about the details of this infection and how to control it then this book is perfect for you.